Frank Bennett <https://twitter.com/fgbjr>_
This supplement is a companion to the CSL 1.0.1 Specification. It is aimed at style authors, and documents differences between official CSL and the CSL-m schema recognised by Multilingual Zotero.
The changes are of two types:
- Modifications alter the behaviour or validation rules of existing CSL elements or attributes. Changes of this kind can cause official CSL repository to fail validation under the CSL-m schema: such styles will run, but may produce unexpected results. The potential effects of this category of changes are indicated where relevant.
- Extensions add entirely new elements or attributes to the schema. Styles making use of extended syntax will fail validation under the official CSL schema, and can be used only with Multilingual Zotero.
Table of Contents
- CSL-M: extensions to CSL
- Item Types
- Entry conventions
- CSL Extension
- Parallel citation and suppressing repetition
- Locator Terms
- Decommissioned features
classic type for sources commonly cited within a field. Cites
of this type do not appear in the bibliography, and can be completely
reformatted to a compact, style-specific form using the Classic
abbreviation list in the Abbreviation Filter.
When a short form is supplied for a Classic item, the
variable is suppressed, and the short form entirely replaces the
author variable. When a volume number or other details are included,
these can be rendered on either side of the composite abbreviated form,
but not of course within it.
<choose> <if type="classic"> <group delimiter=" "> <text variable="volume"/> <group delimiter=", "> <names variable="author"/> <text variable="title"/> </group> </if> </choose>
gazette type for instruments published through an official
gazette. Typical use cases would be cites to amending acts, to the initial
version of legislation, or to orders and other instruments that are not
available from other official sources. For consolidated acts or codified
statutes or regulations, use the
legislation (MLZ Statute) or
regulation (MLZ Regulation) types instead.
<choose> <if type="gazette"> <text macro="gazette-mac"/> </if> </choose>
The format of gazette citations may vary among jurisdictions. Test the
jurisdiction variable (see below) to discriminate between citation
hearing type is primarily intended for transcripts of official
hearings by government committees and the like (other documents
produced by a committee should be cast as the
instead). The body conducting a hearing is set in the
variable (Legis. Body in MLZ).
<choose> <if type="hearing"> <text macro="hearing-mac"/> </if> </choose>
regulation type for administrative orders at all
levels of government.
<choose> <if type="regulation"> <text macro="hearing-mac"/> </if> </choose>
video type is appropriate for video works that are not
disseminated through an access-restricted distribution channel. For
example, content hosted on YouTube should be set to
a DVD release of “The Wizard of Oz” should be set to
<choose> <if type="regulation"> <text macro="hearing-mac"/> </if> </choose>
cs:law-module element can be set within a Jurism style module, as
the last child of its
cs:info element. The element takes one mandatory
types, with a space-delimited list of legal item types as
<law-module types="legislation report legal_case hearing"/>
cs:alternative to add supplementary reference information to a
cited item, such as a translation or reprint. Elements within the
cs:alternative are rendered only when the value of
language contains two valid ISO language codes joined by
> (to indicate the direction of translation). The two language
codes may be identical.
In a multi-layout style, elements within the scope of
cs:alternative are rendered in the primary locale associated with
the target language code. Thus, if the input item has a
en>zh, and a multi-layout style has a layout with
locale="ja zh", elements within the scope of
will be rendered in the Japanese locale, with Japanese term
cs:alternative-text element to rerun the layout applied
cs:alternative with alternative item content. Variables
for rendering via
cs:alternative-text are set with an
One or more
cs:court-class elements may be set as children of a
<locale> <court-class name="admin" country="fi" courts="hao kho"/> </locale>
name attribute is the name assigned to the courts class, and
is output as the
court-class variable on
cs:key elements (see court-class (extension)). It is also used
as the match value for the
court-class condition (see court-class
country attribute in the example above is the first element of
the jurisdiction value set on the item, if any. For example, the
country value for the jurisdiction
fi:helsinki will be
courts attribute is a space-delimited list of court IDs
assigned by the Legal Resource Registry.
The class name is assigned to an item when the
and one of the IDs in
courts matches the
authority values on the item.
As noted above, the name assigned to a set of courts by the
court-class element serves two roles:
- key role: It provides a value for an eponymous variable on the
cs:keyelement for use in sorting.
- condition role: It is used by an eponymous test attribute to check whether the current item is or is not a member of one or more classes.
When set in a style module, the setting applies to the key role
only. When set in the calling style, the setting applies to the
condition role only. The two settings are independent, but confusion
is unlikely because
court-class conditions are used almost
exclusively in style modules (and the same style module, at that); and
court-class sort keys are used only in the calling style.
Condition statements in official CSL take a single “match” attribute,
which determines how the tests will be combined. The match attribute
none) applies to all tests within the
statement: grouping of tests with separate match values is not possible.
To simplify the coding of complex styles, CSL-m introduces an optional
alternative syntax for condition statements.
The alternative syntax may be applied to
elements (the “parent node” in this description). The parent node must
have no attributes, and a single
cs:conditions node as its first
child element. The
cs:conditions node must have one or more
cs:condition children. The
cs:condition children each define a
conditional statement with attributes specified in the CSL 1.0.1
schema and in this Supplement. The
cs:condition statements are
joined according to a mandatory “match” attribute on
Note that CSL-m adds a “nand” match value (true if at least one of the tests or condition statements to which it applies returns false), in addition to “all”, “any”, and “none”.
<choose> <if> <conditions match="any"> <condition type="chapter"/> <condition variable="container-title collection-title" match="nand"/> </conditions> <text macro="some-chapter-mac"/> </if> </choose>
Institutional names are fundamentally different in structure from personal names. CSL provides quite robust support for the presentation and sorting of personal names, but in CSL 1.0.1, institutional names have just one fixed form, and are otherwise treated the same as personal names in a list of creators.
Some publishing environments require greater flexibility. Institution names can consist of multiple subunits. Individuals may be credited together with the institution to which they belong. Unaffiliated personal authors may be cited together with an institution or with individuals affiliated with it. Some examples:
- Research & Pub. Policy Dep’t, Nat’l Urban League
- United Nations - ECLAC
- ECLAC (Economic Commission for Latin America and the Carribean)
- Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI)
- Nolan J. Malone and others, U.S. Bureau of the Census
- World Trade Organization and World Health Organization
- Smith with Jones, Bureau of Sloth, Ministry of Fear
- Doe et al. with Roe et al., Ministry of Fear & Noakes, Ministry of Destruction
Examples 3 and 4 render both the full form and the acronym of a single institution name, with arbitrary ordering of the two name parts. Example 1 begins with the smallest subunit in a list of related institutions, and example 2 does the opposite. Examples 1 and 2 are pure organizations, while example 5 is a mix of personal and institutional names. Examples 1, 2, 3 and 4 would be entered as literal strings currently, which has obvious drawbacks. Example 5 would require that the authorship information be spread across two variables, although all parties listed are equally authors of the resource. Example 6 can be produced in CSL 0.8, but examples 7 and 8 cannot.
The MLZ extensions to CSL 1.0.1 provide a cs:institution element, which can be used to produce any of the above forms, without interfering with the formatting of ordinary personal names. The extension is always enabled in, but the application calling (i.e. Zotero) must specially flag institutional names for it to take effect. MLZ provides this flag, while the official Zotero client does not. For this reason, this extension only works with the multilingual client at present.
In multilingual Zotero, names entered in two-field mode are personal, and those entered in single-field mode are treated as organizations. Names should be entered in the order in which they should appear in citations, with one (extremely rare) exception: when an unaffiliated author is included in a list of names that includes one or more institutions, the name of the unaffiliated author(s) should come after that of the last institution in the list.
Subunits of an organizational name should be separated with a
field separator character
cs:institution element can be placed immediately after the
cs:name element to control the formatting of organization
The value of the
delimiter attribute on
is used in the following locations:
- between organization names;
- between the subunits of an organization;
- between affiliated authors and their institution.
and attribute on
cs:institution, if any, is used for the
final join between two or more author/organization units.
A simple use of
cs:institution might read as follows:
<names variable="author"> <name and="symbol" initialize-with=". "/> <institution and="text" delimiter=", "> </names>
With this CSL, all of the delimiters in the following string would be
drawn from attributes on
cs:institution: R. Smith, Small
Committee, Large Corporation, G. Brown, Busy Group, Active Laboratory,
and S. Noakes, Powerful Ministry.
To control the omission of names from the middle of the list of
organizational subunits, either of
substitute-use-first may be used to pick names from the front of
the list. The
use-last attribute picks names from the end. The
substitute-use-first attribute includes the leading (smallest)
subunit if and only if no personal names are associated with the
The following CSL code would format both example 1 and example 5 from the list of samples at the top of this section:
<names variable="author" delimiter=", "> <name and="symbol" delimiter-precedes-last="never" et-al-min="3" et-al-use-first="1"/> <et-al term="and others"/> <institution delimiter=", " substitute-use-first="1" use-last="1"/> </names>
By convention, organizational names are rendered in “big endian”
order, from the smallest to the largest organizational unit. To
provide for cases such as example 2 in the list of samples, a
reverse-order attribute can be applied on
<names variable="author" delimiter=", "> <name/> <institution delimiter=" - " use-first="1" use-last="1" reverse-order="true"/> </names>
The components of organization names are normally rendered in their
long form only.
To use the short form, or combinations of the long and short form, an
institution-parts attribute is available on
The attribute accepts values of
long-short. This attribute would be used to produce examples
3 and 4 in the list of samples, with values of
long-short respectively. A value of
short behaves in the same
form="short" in other contexts in CSL, using the short form
if it is available, and falling back to the long form otherwise.
One or more cs:institution-part elements can be used to control the
formatting of long and short forms of organization names. Like
cs:name-part, these elements are unordered, and affect only the
formatting of the target name element, specified (as on
with a required
In example 3, the parentheses should be included only if a short form
of the institution name is available. The
cs:institution-part only when applied to the long
form of an organization name, makes the formatting in the element
conditional on the availability of a short form of the name. The
following CSL would render example 3 in the list of samples:
<names variable="author"> <name/> <institution institution-parts="short-long"> <institution-part name="long" if-short="true" prefix=" (" suffix=")"/> </institution> </names>
In rendered output, unaffiliated personal names are joined to a
following organizational name using an implicit localizable term
with. Styling of this term is permitted through an optional
cs:with element, placed immediately above
<names variable="author"> <name/> <with font-style="italic" prefix=" " suffix=" "/> <institution institution-parts="short-long"> <institution-part name="long" if-short="true" prefix=" (" suffix=")"/> </institution> </names>
In publishing outside of the English language domain, citation of foreign material in the style of the originating language is the norm. For example, a Japanese publication might include the following references in a single work:
- D. H. McQueen, “Patents and Swedish University Spin-off Companies: Patent Ownership and Economic Health”, Patent World, March 1996, pp.22–27.
- 北川善太郎「著作権法１００年記念講演会／著作権制度の未来像」コピーマート No.465, 7頁 (2000年)。
To meet such requirements, the MLZ extensions to CSL permit multiple
cs:layout elements within
cs:layout element but the last must include a
specifying one or more recognized CSL locales, and the final element must
not carry a
locale attribute. The locale applied to an item is determined
by matching it against the locale set in the
language variable of
the item (this value is passed by Zotero). An example:
<citation> <layout locale="en es de"> <text macro="layout-citation-roman"/> </layout> <layout locale="ru"> <text macro="layout-citation-cyrillic"/> </layout> <layout> <text macro="layout-citation-ja"/> </layout> </citation>
In the example above, an item with
de-AT) set in the
variable will be render by the
macro, with locale terms set to the appropriate language.
document-name variable is available on the
and it used for the title of documents filed in court in the context of a given
case. It is handled as a string.
The ISO (or BCP 47) language code of the resource. The value is set to the
target of a vector symbol (
<) in the
and is otherwise undefined.
The ISO (or BCP 47) language code of the resource. The value is set to the
source of a vector symbol (
<) in the
and is otherwise undefined.
available-date variable is appropriate for the date on
treaty was made available for signing.
<group delimiter=" "> <text value="opened for signature" font-style="italic"/> <date date-parts="year-month-day" form="text" variable="available-date"/> </group>
hereinafter variable is a backreference form specific to a
particular item and style. In MLZ, it can be set only through the
Abbreviation Filter. The role of the variable in a given cite
(i.e. whether it provides an alternative title, an acronym or a
more complete formatted citation) depends on the the style and context.
<choose> <if match="all" type="bill gazette legislation" variable="hereinafter"> <text variable="hereinafter"/> </if> <else> <text variable="title" form="short"/> </else> </choose>
The Abbreviation Filter will offer an entry in the
for every item cited in the document. It is not necessary to use
cs:text node that renders the variable.
locator is a numeric variable. Validation requires that
it be rendered with
locator variable will render exactly once in a citation;
subsequent attempts will render nothing. As with variables suppressed
cs:substitute, the test for
continue to return
true after the variable is suppressed from
The variable “locator-date” is parsed out from the user-supplied locator, using the following syntax:
In this example, “123” is the value of the
(a page or other pinpoint string), the
| character marks the
end of the pinpoint, and the ten-character string immediately
following is a full date. If supplied, dates must be given as shown above,
zero-padded, in year-month-day order, and with no space between
the date and the
| character. Non-conforming strings following
| marker will be treated as a
locator-extra variable consists of a string that is not a
date, following the
locator-date string (if any) as described
above. If supplied without a
locator-extra string must be preceded by a
separator character. This variable can be used for version
descriptions associated with some looseleaf services.
These extensions are useful with looseleaf services, because the dates of the content in these services varies depending on the page cited and the time at which the resource was referenced. These extensions permit a single item in the calling application’s database to represent the volume on the library shelf, the page date being optionally supplied by the user when citing into a document.
page-first variables are numeric in CSL-m.
The validator requires that they be rendered with
CSL-m adds a
publication-date variable to the language schema.
It is available on the
regulation types, and provides the date on which the instrument
was published in the given reporter. On the
patent type, it represents
the date on which the patent was published for opposition (applicable only in certain
<date date-parts="year-month-day" form="text" variable="publication-date"/>
publication-number variable is available on the
and provides the number assigned to a patent published for opposition.
It is a numeric variable, and validation requires that it be rendered
supplement variable and its associated locale term are useful
for secondary sources that are regularly updated between fresh
editions. Such fine-grained updates are found in secondary legal
publications. Although a supplement may be identified by number or by
supplement is a numeric variable, and validation requires
that it be rendered with
<choose> <if is-numeric="supplement"> <group delimiter=" "> <label variable="supplement"/> <number variable="supplement"/> </group> </if> <else> <number variable="supplement"/> </else> </choose>
division variable is available on items of the
type. it is used to add minor subdivisions of a court that are not
captured by jurisdiction/court identifiers and their associated
gazette-flag variable is available on the
regulation types. It functions as a boolean, and should not be
rendered. Set it with a value to indicate that the record refers to
a statute and published in an official gazette (rather than a
codified version of the same law).
volume-title variable is available on items of the
chapter type. Use it to identify the name of a volume within a
larger work known by an umbrella title (which may in turn be a part of
a publisher’s series, described by
While any variable can be set with an
alt- prefix for rendering in
cs:alternative-text, a few variables are recognized as
first-class variable names that can be referenced directly
in the style, for testing purposes.
court-class is a virtual variable enabled by setting a
element in the locale (typically the default locale) of the style.
authority values on the item match values
set on the locale declaration, the name of the class is output. Non-matching
items output an empty string.
cs:date element, this form option renders the date in
Japanese Imperial form. Only dates of the modern era (明治 to 令和) are supported.
cs:style-options element under
cs:local, the value of this attribute
is a space-delimited list of jurisdiction variant extensions, from highest to lowest
priority. Where available, a specified variant is applied when selecting style modules
and associated abbreviation sets.
require-match attribute is available on
When set to
true, it takes effect if and only if exactly two
variables are called by the element, and the current locale contains a
term (such as
editortranslator) that matches the sorted and
concatenated variable names. If those conditions are not satisfied,
the variables will be rendered according to the standard CSL
Specification. If the conditions are satisfied, the attribute has
the following effects:
- If the content of the name variables match exactly, the matching content will be rendered once, using the matching term as label. This is in accordance with the standard CSL Specification.
- Otherwise, the variables will not be rendered, and processing
will proceed to
cs:substitute, and the two variables called on
cs:namesremain available for rendering.
This can be useful where and editor and a translator, for example, should be rendered as a unit if they refer to the same person, but in separate parts of the citation if they differ.
exclude-types option is available on the
element. Use it to specify a list of item types that are to be
excluded from the bibliography.
CSL-m allows conversion of ordinary Gregorian dates to the Japanese form often used in legal citations and other government records. The conversion is only valid for dates after 1873. Prior dates on the traditional lunar calendar are not supported, and should be written as literal strings in the input.
<date variable="issued" form="imperial" date-parts="year-month-day"/>
In CSL 1.0.1, rendering the
title variable with the attribute
form="short" produces the same result with any item type: if the
title-short variable has a value, that it used; otherwise the
title variable is rendered as a fallback.
In CSL-m, on the
legal_case type only, the
attribute does not attempt to render
title-short, but instead
title variable, transformed by the Abbreviation Filter
if an entry for it exists in the list there. This permits the
application of style-specific abbreviation rules, as required by
law-specific style guides such as The Bluebook: A Uniform System
<text variable="title" form="short"/>
Set on a
cs:group node, the
is-parallel attribute includes or
suppresses the content of the entire group node depending on its
position in a parallel citation. Items form a parallel citation when:
(a) they are immediately adjacent (b) they carry a recognized list
of related item IDs in their input data, and (c) the list of related
IDs includes the ID of an item immediately before or after the cited
item. Two values are recognised on the attribute:
- The group is rendered by default. In parallel-citation context, the group is rendered only if the cite is the first of the parallel series.
- The group is rendered by default. In the parallel-cite context, the group is rendered only if the cite is the last of the parallel series.
changes-in attribute is valid on
cs:group elements. It
takes effect only when used with
is-parallel. Its argument a list
of variable names. Its effect is to override the effect of
is-parallel, if there is a change from the previous parallel cite
in one or more of the variables set in its argument.
no-repeat attribute is valid on
cs:group elements. It does
not depend on the
is-parallel attribute, and takes effect on an
ordinary series of cites in a citation. The attribute blocks rendering
of the group if the variables given in its argument all have the same
value as in the preceding cite.
When used with the
parallel-delimiter-override replaces the layout delimiter joining
parallel sibling cites, or cites for which
output. When set of one element with the
the layout delimiter will be overridden for all members of the series.
cs:group for use in conditional rendering of
locators. Both attributes take one of three arguments, each
representing a set of pre-bundled tests.
require renders the group
only if the tests return
reject renders the group only
if the tests return
false. The bundled tests differ in kind from
cs:choose conditions, in that they examine field
cs:label variable, or
cs:text value or term is
ordinarily the first rendering element within the group. Other
elements may follow, as in the following example:
<group delimiter=" "> <group delimiter=", "> <text variable="container-title"/> <group delimiter=" " require="comma-safe"> <choose> <if locator="page" match="none"> <label variable="locator"/> </if> </choose> <number variable="locator"/> </group> </group> <group delimiter=" " reject="comma-safe"> <choose> <if locator="page" match="none"> <label variable="locator"/> </if> </choose> <number variable="locator"/> </group> </group>
(Note that, for purposes of evaluation, the leading term used is the
actual rendered field value, which may differ from the value of
locator-label set on item input, if a leading term shortcode is
set in the
The predefined conditions are as follows:
- True (for
cs:labelvariable, or a
cs:textvalue or term) is empty (or not present) and the immediately preceding rendered element ended in a number; or
term textis a
cs:labelvariable with a value, and begins with a
- False (for
term textis empty and the immediately preceding rendered element did not end in a number; or
term textis a non-falsey
cs:textvalue or term; or
term textis a
cs:labelvariable that does not start with a
- True (for
term textis empty.
- True (for
term textis empty or the
term textcontains a placeholder (
%s) as a term with
label-form attribute can be used on
cs:number and on
cs:text with the
macro attribute. It accepts the same arguments
form attribute for localised terms:
symbol. Its effect is to override
form attribute applicable to terms called via the parent
cs:number node. This can be useful where macros are copied
across styles that require different label forms.
<text macro="locator-mac" label-form="symbol"/>
When set on a
cs:style-options node in a locale file or in a
leading-noise-words attribute takes a comma-delimited
list of words as its argument.
When a list is set, the same attribute on a
cs:text node with
variable="title" takes an argument of
demote attribute, noise words at the start of the field are
rendered after the remainder of the title field, delimited by a comma.
drop attribute the leading noise words are simply
<text variable="title" leading-noise-words="demote"/>
name-as-sort-order attribute is available on the
locale element, taking a list of space-delimited country codes as its argument.
Country codes in the argument should be limited to a single element
(i.e. the language only, without a country or other specifier): other elements
will be ignored.
When the first element of the field language (either explictly set, or
defaulting to the item
language field value, if any) matches one of
the specified locales, the name is forced to “sort order”, regardless of its
<style-options name-as-sort-order="kr ja zh"/>
The example above will force names tagged as Korean, Japanese, and Chinese to sort order (i.e. family name first). This attribute does not interfere with short-form rendering or abbreviation (see the next heading below for that setting).
name-never-short attribute on the
element takes a list of space-delimited country codes as its
argument. Country codes in the argument should be limited to a single
element (i.e. the language only, without a country or other
specifier): other elements will be ignored.
When the first element of the field language (either explictly set, or
defaulting to the item
language field value, if any) matches one of
the specified locales, the effect of
form="short" is suppressed
when rendering the name concerned.
<style-options name-never-short="hu kr ja my vi zh"/>
The example above suppresses
form="short" on names tagged as
Hungarian, Korean, Japanese, Myanmar, Vietnamese, or Chinese.
Ordinary affixes in CSL-m are subject to a restriction: a
attribute may not begin with a space, and a
suffix attribute may
not end with a space. Affixes on
cs:label within a
element, and affixes within the scope of a
cs:date element are
not subject to this constraint.
The purpose of this requirement is to assure that styles are incapable
of rendering cites with stray punctuation or multiple spaces. Where
spaces are required between elements, they should be applied using
delimiter attribute value on a
<group delimiter=", "> <number variable="volume"/> <text variable="container-title"/> </group>
The processor carries a list of prepositions and other terms that
will not be capitalised when rendering a field with
Within a locale, the
skip-words attribute on
can be used to replace this list of terms with another. The attribute
value should be a comma-delimited list of words or phrases.
subgroup-delimiter attribute is a field-parsing hack coded
citeproc-js processor, enabled when the processor is run
in CSL-m mode. In a group containing only
cs:text elements rendering
publisher-place variables, the processor will
split the content of both fields on a semicolon. If the length of the
resulting list objects is equal, each
pair will be joined with the
delimiter string set on the enclosing
cs:group element. The composed pairs are then joined using the
subgroup-delimiter-precedes-last attribute controls the use of
the delimiter between the last and the penultimate pair in the same
delimiter-precedes-last on a
cs:name element. The
and attribute with an argument of
symbol may be
used on the
cs:group element to join the final item with the
<group delimiter=" " subgroup-delimiter=", " subgroup-delimiter-precedes-last="always"> <text variable="publisher"/> <text variable="publisher-place"/> </group>
<group delimiter=" " subgroup-delimiter=", " subgroup-delimiter-precedes-last="never" and="symbol"> <text variable="publisher"/> <text variable="publisher-place"/> </group>
In the MLZ extended schema, names can be suppressed in two ways.
suppress-max with values of
1 or above, names rendered via a
cs:name element can be
suppressed entirely when the number of individual names is at or below
a minimum, or at or above a maximum.
Second, with a value of
suppress-min can be used
cs:institution element to suppress
only names of that type. See the description of
below for an example of how that works and why it might sometimes
An example of
suppress-min with a value of
<locale xml:lang="en"> <terms> <term name="and others"></term> </terms> </locale> <macro name="first-position-author"> <names variable="author"> <name et-al-min="2" et-al-use-first="1" suppress-min="4" name-as-sort-order="first"/> <et-al term="and others"/> </names> </macro> <macro name="second-position-author"> <names variable="author"> <name et-al-min="4" et-al-use-first="1" delimiter=", "/> </names> </macro> <citation> <layout> <group delimiter=" / "> <group delimiter=" "> <text macro="first-position-author"/> <text variable="title"/> </group> <text macro="second-position-author"/> </group> </layout> </citation>
In the above example, an item with two authors will render as follows:
Stamou, A.I. Title of the Article / A.I. Stamou, I. Katsiris
An item with four authors, however, will render as follows:
Title of the Article / A.I. Stamou et al.
When set to zero, the
suppress-min attribute is specific to the
cs:institution node only (for clarity, the
attribute with this value should always be set directly on the
affected node, rather than relying on inheritance). The effect of the
setting is to suppress all institution or all personal names, leaving
a list of the remaining names in place. This can be useful where
personal and institutional authors must be listed in separate places
in a citation—one example of such formatting being Rule
21.7.3 of the Bluebook 18th ed. (applicable to U.N. reports) which
provides the following guidance and example:
If a personal author is given along with the institutional author, the author [sic] should be included in a parenthetical at the end of the citation.U.N. Econ. & Soc. Council [ECOSOC], Sub-Comm. on Prevention of Discrimination & Prot. of Minorities, Working Group on Minorities, Working Paper: Universal and Regional Mechanisms for Minority Protection, ¶ 17, U.N. Doc. E/CN.4/Sub.2/AC.5/1999/WP.6 (May 5, 1999) (prepared by Vladimir Kartashkin).
<macro name="authors"> <group delimiter=" "> <names variable="author"> <name name-as-sort-order="all" et-al-min="11" et-al-use-first="3" and="text"/> </names> <group delimiter=" " prefix="(" suffix=")"> <names variable="author"> <name suppress-max="10" form="count"/> </names> <text value="co-authors"/> </group> </group> </macro> <citation> <layout> <text macro="authors"/> </layout> </citation>
In this example, an item with four authors would render as follows:
Doe, J, Roe, J, Noakes, R, and Snoakes, H
An item with eleven authors, on the other hand, would render like this:
Doe, J, Roe, J, Noakes, R, et al. (11 co-authors)
CSL-m adds a
normal argument to the possible values of
text-case. This is mainly useful when rendering a
element in the scope of an element that applies a
transform, to prevent text content in the rendered variable from being
affected by the transform.
(The need for this attribute value is open to question.)
<number variable="number" text-case="normal"/>
CSL-m offers a
year-range-format attribute on
cs:style, as a
page-range-format. It takes the same arguments:
used, this attribute specifies a collapsing format for year ranges
separate from that applied to page ranges.
<style xmlns="http://purl.org/net/xbiblio/csl" class="note" default-locale="en-GB" page-range-format="chicago" year-range-format="expanded" version="1.1mlz1">
An alternate to
disambiguate="true" that includes the actual value of
first-reference-note-number (rather than a uniform slug) when evaluating
the condition. This will add the conditional text only when necessary
to disambiguate cites that are ambiguous within a single note.
The counterpart to
position="near-note" that evaluates
true if the
cite is more than
near-note-distance from the last preceding reference
to the item.
context test attribute takes exactly one of the arguments
alternative. It does exactly
what its name and value suggest, returning true when the condition is
executed in the relevant context. This test is useful where complex
logic is needed to compose a particular element, which changes only
slightly depending on context.
<choose> <if context="citation"> <text variable="title" font-variant="small-caps"/> </if> <else> <text variable="title" font-variant="small-caps" form="short"/> </else> </choose>
genre test attribute takes one of five arguments:
television-broadcast. These correspond to strings automatically
inserted into the
genre variable by MLZ (where no value is set
manually by the user) on the Email, Instant Message, Podcast,
Radio Broadcast and Television Broadcast types respectively.
This is obviously a hack, and mimicks the effect of having five separate types for these items in CSL, as opposed to two (i.e. personal_communication and broadcast).
<choose> <if genre="podcast"> <text macro="podcast-mac"/> </if> </choose>
has-day condition attribute tests whether the date variable given
as argument has a value that includes a day.
<choose> <if has-day="issued"> <date variable="issued"> <date-part name="month" form="text"/> <date-part name="day" form="numeric" prefix=" "/> </date> </if> </choose>
has-to-month-or-season condition attribute tests whether the date
variable given as argument has a month or season (and no day).
<choose> <if has-to-month-or-season="issued"> <date variable="issued"> <date-part name="month"/> </date> </if> </choose>
has-year-only condition attribute test whether the date
variable given as argument has only a year (and no day, month or season).
<choose> <if has-year-only="issued"> <date variable="issued" date-parts="year" form="text" prefix="[" suffix="]"/> </if> </choose>
When citing primary legal resources, the form of citation is often
fixed, for ease of reference, by the issuing
jurisdiction— “jurisdiction” referring in this case to
international rule-making bodies as well as national governments.
CSL 1.0.1 provides a
jurisdiction variable, but it cannot be used
because Zotero does not currently have a corresponding field.
The particular requirement for this variable is that it be tested in a
cs:else-if condition, so that citations can be
varied according to the issuing jurisdiction. Testing of field content
is contrary to the design of CSL, so the approach of the MLZ extended
CSL schema is strictly circumscribed to address this particular need,
without opening a door to uncontrolled general testing of field
The solution is in two parts, described below.
The CSL schema has been extended in accordance with the proposed URN:LEX standard for a uniform resource namespace for sources of law. This standard provides a concept of “jurisdiction” that suits the requirements of legal citation, including both national jurisdictions and international rule-making bodies. Following URN:LEX, the schema has been extended with an explicit list of the national jurisdictions of the world, plus selected rule-making international organizations designated by their permanent domain name. The former are drawn from ISO 3166 Alpha-2. The latter do not yet have official sanction, as URN:LEX is still at the proposal stage, but the list in the schema extension is conservative, including only a few of the most stable (and widely cited) organizations.
The list of acceptable jurisdictions codes is coupled with an
extension of the
cs:else-if elements, providing a
jurisdiction test attribute. In styles, the value set on the
attribute must be present in the list of acceptable jurisdiction
values. A style that uses other values is invalid.
jurisdiction test attribute is used, its value is
compared with the value of the
jurisdiction variable on the item
being processed. If the values match, the test returns true, otherwise
false. Matching is done at the granularity of the argument provided
in the test.
<choose> <if jurisdiction="us"> <text macro="us-mac"/> </if> </choose>
The test above will be true for items with a
jurisdiction value of
de, and false for values of
In CSL-m, alternative
cs:layout nodes can be set by giving each
locale attribute. See the description of cs:layout (extension)
above for further details.
In CSL-m, the
page variable can be tested in the same way as
locator. The test evaluates the label value, if any, set at the
start of the field using a recognized locator abbreviation. See
Locator Terms below for a list of recognised abbreviations and
their corresponding CSL-m label values.
<choose> <if page="page" match="none"> <label form="symbol" variable="page"/> </if> </choose>
cs:label element in this example will render the localised term
for the label set in the
page field (e.g. “
para. 3” will render
in English as “¶ 3”).
In addition to the extended terms (
title), CSL-m styles automatically set the special alternative
Section when rendering the corresponding
terms in the context of the first item in a parallel reference.
The features below were formerly documented here, but no longer exist. The reason for withdrawal is given in /italics/ at the top of each entry.
- Although easy to implement, this is a workaround. It will be seldom
used, and the more so because the purpose of
the special variable is not apparent on the surface. If something like
this were to be implemented, it should be done by adding an attribute
dummy name variable is always empty. Use it to force all
name variables called through a
cs:names node to render through
cs:substitute, and so suppress whichever is chosen for rendering
to be suppressed through the remainder of the current cite.
<names variable="dummy"> <name/> <label/> <substitute> <names variable="author"/> <names variable="editor"/> </substitute> </names>
- This is a hack that would encourage users to reserve an ``unused field’’ (of which there really are none) for the purpose of excluding things from the bibliography. It needs to go.
exclude-with-fields option is available on the
element. Use it to specify a list of fields to be excluded from the
bibliography if they contain a value.
- While this does add another string to the conditional bow, no style has yet found a need for it, and I always struggle a bit to remember what it does (admittedly my training in logic was probably lacking, so that’s the weaker of the two reasons for setting it aside, at least for the present).
nand argument to the
match attribute, a node test is true
if at least one of the tests it invokes is false.
<choose> <if variable="volume issue" match="nand"> <text macro="volume-issue-mac"/> </if> </choose>
- Can’t think of a use case for this.
This is the counterpart of
name-as-sort-order, available on
only. Its operation is identical to its counterpart, but has the opposite effect
of forcing reverse-order rendering of all names bearing the specified language
name-as-sort-order attribute is described immediately below.
- It’s not clear when this would be necessary.
default-locale-sort attribute on the
cs:style node to specify
the language collation to govern sorting behaviour. The sort locale has no effect
on the language of standard terms and labels.
<style xmlns="http://purl.org/net/xbiblio/csl" class="note" version="1.1mlz1" default-locale="en-US" default-locale-sort="zh-TW">
If this attribute is not set, the sort locale is aligned with the default locale of the style or processor instance.
- We can get by with
<text value="published"/>for now.
unpublished localised term is available for use
by CSL-m styles.
- With the implementation of style modules, this has become unnecessary.
jurisdiction variable contains a juridiction specifier
divided into subfields, with a colon as the subfield delimiter.
subjurisdictions test attribute takes an integer as
argument. It returns true if the
jurisdiction field on the item
contains a value with at least the specified number of
<choose> <if subjurisdictions="2"> <text variable="jurisdiction" form="short"/> </if> </choose>
The example above will render the value of the
“abbreviated” according the any mapping set for the style in the
Abbreviation Filter. In the example, a value of
will return false, while a value of
us;federal;ny will return